The city with endless possibilities

   By: Yurisha Bajracharya

Grade 10

Swarnim School

Email: yurishabajracharya@gmail.com



Kathmandu is a beautiful city blessed with plenty of natural resources and a perfect climate. However, due to industrialization and unplanned urbanization, we can observe extreme pollution in Kathmandu. On the bright side, we can hope for a better Kathmandu by giving our hundred percent effort.

The “Our Glorious Kathmandu” Project is about how beautiful and managed I expect our Kathmandu to be in the coming years. It focuses on the progressive development that can take place in Kathmandu with the collective effort of all. It depicts the present condition of Kathmandu and also the systematic and developed city we can hope to achieve soon. By this project, I hope to motivate the Kathmandu residents to work actively for their bright future.

Objectives of the Project:

  1. To show the present situation of Kathmandu clearly.
  2. To increase attention on the various problems faced in Kathmandu.
  3. To shed light on the possible solutions to those problems.
  4. To showcase the plans which will be beneficial for the new Kathmandu.
  5. To encourage the residents to hope for a better Kathmandu.
  6. To emphasize the importance of industrial and educational development.
  7. To show the necessity of proper disposal of industrial wastes and ways to do so.
  8. To display a perfect balance between the modern city alongside protecting the natural and cultural heritage.


History of Kathmandu

Current Kathmandu was a vast and profound lake named ‘Nagdaha’ in prehistoric times. Buddhist saint Manjushree cut drained the freshwater with his sword and the water was displaced out from Kathmandu. [1] This is mentioned in the Swayambhu Puran. There have been many regimes in Kathmandu such as the Licchavi Kingdom, Malla dynasty and when King Prithvi Narayan Shah unified Nepal, Kathmandu was made the capital city of Nepal. Then, Rana rule also began in 1903 B.S. in Nepal. It ended in 2007 B.S. and we got democracy. Still, there was another autocratic rule, the Panchayat system. Finally, only in 2065 B.S., Kathmandu became the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

Current Condition of Kathmandu

The present situation of Kathmandu is not satisfactory. Here we will discuss various factors to know more about the present status of Kathmandu.


  1. Administration and Government Status

Administratively Kathmandu is divided into 32 wards. The administration and government are not able to successfully execute the necessary plans and policies for the advancement and actual benefit of Kathmandu. Although the Government is putting continuous effort to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, COVID cases are increasing speedily in Kathmandu due to insufficient execution of the plans and policies required for the management of the devastating pandemic.

  1. Geography and Climate

The total area of Kathmandu is 45.45 sq. km. Its elevation is 1400 meters above sea level. Kathmandu lies in hilly region near the convergence of the Bagmati and Vishnumati rivers. The climate of Kathmandu is moderate. Nowadays, we can observe extreme environmental pollution in Kathmandu including air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution which degrades the geographical and climatic condition of Kathmandu. Kathmandu was also ranked the most polluted city on March 26, 2021, Friday afternoon. [2] Also, aquatic animals like fish are in peril of depletion due to water pollution.

  1. Demography

Kathmandu is the sixth densely populated city in the world. It has a population density of 29,166.83 people per square kilometer. The population of Kathmandu is around 1,442,300. Nepali is the most generally spoken language. Many people also speak Nepal Bhasa and English. Most people also understand Hindi. 70% of the total inhabitants of Kathmandu are aged 15-59. As per the data from 2011, the main religions followed by people in the city are Hinduism 81.3%, Buddhism 9%, Islam 4.4%, and other 5.2%.[1]

Source of Data:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathmandu#Ethnic_groups


  1. Economy

Kathmandu is the most vital industrial and commercial center in Nepal. The Nepal Stock Exchange, the head office of the national bank, and head offices of national and international banks, telecommunication companies, the electricity authority, etc. are in Kathmandu. The chief commercial centers in Kathmandu are the New Road, Durbar Marg, Ason, and Putalisadak. Also, tourism is well developed here because Tribhuvan International Airport is in Kathmandu which is the only international airport of Nepal at present. Hence, international tourists need to reach Kathmandu first before visiting any other part of the country. They are more likely to visit the beautiful places of Kathmandu and likewise, Kathmandu has good accommodation facilities.


  1. Transport

The transportation facility in Kathmandu is much better than in many other parts of the country. Tribhuvan Highway links Kathmandu to the south connecting India, Prithvi Highway to the east, Araniko Highway to the north linking China, Banepa Bardibas Highway (BP Highway) connects Kathmandu with the eastern Terai region. [1] We have a cable car facility as well in Chandragiri hills. However, when compared with the transportation facility of other developed cities, the condition of transport is not yet developed in Kathmandu. We often hear about road accidents in Kathmandu due to the poor quality of roads. Due to rapid population growth, traffic jams are being more common and it is unlikely to reach a given place on time.


  1. Education


The quality of education facilities in Kathmandu, although better than other parts of Nepal, is mediocre. This is mostly the case in public schools. On the contrary, many private schools and colleges have been established which provide quality education. There are many universities providing higher education but definitely, the level of education is far behind when compared to the organized schooling system of many other advanced cities. Hence, many students prefer going to developed cities for their higher education.


  1. Culture



Kathmandu is rich in its culture. There are many world heritage sites in Kathmandu such as Swayambhunath, the Pashupatinath Temple, Bouddhanath Stupa, and apart from them, there are many other mesmerizing sites in Kathmandu such as Dakshinkali Temple, Vishnu Temple, Taleju Temple, Shee Gha Gumba, Narayanhiti Palace Museum, The National Museum, Rani Pokhari, Kumari Ghar, Ghanta Ghar and so on. The local residents value folk songs and dance. They enjoy festivals such as Bijaya Dashami, Holi, Tihar, Chhath, Gaijatra, Maha Shivaratri, Indra Jatra, Bisket Jatra, etc. In addition, our art is also unique. Granthachitra, Paubachitra, Bhittechitra, and Murtikala are well flourished. The wall paintings, made in the 18th century, of Shantipur of Swayambhu, Basantapur Durbar, Kumarighar of Kathmandu are most significant.



Promotion of arts is being done by Nepal Academy and Nepal Association of Fine Arts(NAFA) which are in Kathmandu. There is also an art college for the study of fine arts in Bhotahiti, Kathmandu called Lalitkala Campus. Furthermore, Kathmandu is home to Nepali cinema. There are cinema halls like QFX Cinemas Kumari, Jai Nepal Kumari Hall, Big Movies, etc. But, due to the pandemic, many cinema halls have faced huge losses due to which many of them are forced to shut down.


  1. Recreation

There are various recreation centers in Kathmandu like Swoyambhu Recreation Center, Baneshwor Recreation Center, etc. There are numerous parks such as Narayan Chaur, Hariyali Park, Buddha Park, Sankha Park and many more. But the condition of parks is substandard. The size and the magnificence of the Bhugol Park in New Road and Balaju Park have been considerably condensed. It is because of the lack of appropriate plan about the public parks.


  1. Sport

There are sports centers like National Sports Centre, Kathmandu Sports, Ballpark Sports Events & Academy, etc. in Kathmandu. Dasharath Rangasala is the sole international football stadium in Kathmandu. Sport activities are given high importance in many schools and colleges as well. In recent years, the significance and appreciation for sports in Kathmandu has amplified. Kathmandu is the home of some of the oldest football and cricket clubs of Nepal as well.







Problems faced in Kathmandu

Suggestions/ Solutions to the problems


Rapid population growth

Family planning education should be provided in schools and awareness should be spread in the society.

Environmental pollution

All residents should actively engage in cleanup campaigns. Industrial wastes should be treated before letting them out in the environment.

Poor condition of transportation


Quality products should be used for the construction of road. Carpools can help to reduce the overcrowding of roads in office hours.

Poor quality of education

Training programs should be conducted for teachers to get well acquainted with online classes. Practical knowledge should be provided and the curriculum should be updated time and often.

Lack of entrepreneurship

Youths should be encouraged to be self-employed. Leadership skills should be taught from an early age.

Lack of good administration of laws

There should be strict action taken against people who violate laws.


CIAA (Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority) should actively function to check any corrupt activities.

Blind Imitation of Foreign Culture

People should be educated to learn from the good of others but still give importance to their own culture.

Lack of research, science and technological advancement

There should be suitable environment for the scientists, researchers to showcase their ideas by tech fests and science exhibitions.

Illegal Poaching

People who are found poaching illegally should be strictly punished. Hunting reserves should be established.

Encroachment of Heritage sites by the footpath shops and local people and encroachment of forest areas

Hotels, lodges, and footpath shops should be shifted a bit far from the heritage sites. Effective security system should be mobilized around heritage sites and forest areas.

Attraction of foreign employment and mentality of looking for employment rather than being self-employed after the completion of education

Students should be taught practical skills. Entrepreneurship skills have to be taught to motivate them to be self-employed and instead of getting employed, they should be made able to provide employment opportunities.




Design of new kathmandu

Plans for overall development of Kathmandu




Development Process

Kathmandu is a city with high possibilities of progress. Following development procedure can prove to be successful for the overall improvement of Kathmandu as per the necessity:

  1. Education

Education is an effective means for personal empowerment and enhancement of human dignity. A population with strong education background places a state in a better situation to encounter the intricate socio-economic challenges it confronts. So, both the government and private sectors should invest for educational development. Educational institutions should focus on providing quality education with practical knowledge. Students should be provided with knowledge about first aid as well. Scholarships should be provided to the students who have economic issues. Education system should not stress the students.


  1. Job Opportunity

Job opportunities should be available to avoid brain drain. Quality education should be provided so that the youths are motivated to be entrepreneurs as well. Vocational trainings should be provided so that the people can work and utilize their skills.


  1. Infrastructure

The elected officers and road managers need to supervise the road condition in Kathmandu. They should appoint the able contractors for construction of roads and bridges.


  1. Health

Hospital facilities should be increased. Right now, at the crisis of COVID-19, we have realized that our health facilities are not enough. People are not getting the required medical treatment. Hence, it is extremely necessary to not only focus on human resource but also infrastructure. Similarly, there should be clean drinking water facility to ensure good health.


  1. Agriculture

Development in agriculture is possible through scientific land reform, protection of farmers’ rights, commercialization of the cultivated products, crops diversification, and usage of contemporary science and technology in agriculture sector. If there is appropriate application and market management of the agricultural yields, it can support the growth of other sectors too.


  1. Industrial Development and Trade

We can obtain raw materials from forest and agricultural products and establish industries. We can find minerals from the ores like limestone in Chobhar, Kathmandu and gold in Swayambhu, Hallchowk area. These minerals can be utilized by establishment of industries. Motive of entrepreneurship in people and the changing trend of vocational and technical education can also support to the development of industries. There should be encouraging policy of government for foreign investment as well. Good quality products as per the demand of the world market should be produced and new markets should be explored for the trade promotion.


  1. Protection of our culture, design and architecture

Culture is the complete way of life, social communication, and pattern of behavior, ethics and etiquettes, languages, arts, rites, festivals, etc. Our culture and cultural aspects stay sparkling through preserving and promoting the significant archaeological, religious and cultural heritages. Furthermore, we should protect our distinctive art and architecture, heritages, folk culture, and museums.


  1. Improvement in science and technology

Technological fests and science exhibitions should be held to improve the science and technological aspect. Big companies should help in conducting these programs by sponsoring them and providing financial support. Similarly, people should be made aware about internet and its uses.


  1. Conservation of wildlife and environment

Conservation areas should be established for the protection of biodiversity. Research and study on birds and animals should be done. Then there should be restriction on poaching. The persons who are involved in trafficking of faunas should not be given any kind of excuses. Countless animals are being threatened due to deforestation and fragmentation of habitation. So, we should conserve their habitat too.


  1. Better policy and planning

There should be scientific planning of new laws and its implementation. In addition, proper coordination between the state and the local government can also help in better policy making.


  1. Gender equality

Gender equality should be given high importance because by this, there will be equal enjoyment of rights, resources and rewards by women and men. Opportunities should be provided on the basis of equity for the representation of all.


  1. Sports

Development in sports sector should be emphasized. Building stadiums will be beneficial for improving the involvement of people in sports. It should be given importance by schools as well by regular sports classes.

  1. Tourism

Able tourist guides should be recruited. For tourism to thrive, transportation facilities should also improve. The popular tourist destination sites should be maintained and renovated time and again.


  1. Population Management and Safe Motherhood

People should be educated about family planning. People should be made aware of the need for appropriate age at marriage, proper birth spacing, and the use of contraceptive devices. There should be the provision of legal abortion. Hospitals should provide high-quality antenatal and postpartum care, post-abortion care to women.


  1. Corruption and social evils

It was found by Transparency International (TI) that in Nepal, political parties are corrupt and CIAA does not investigate the high-ranking personnel and many government employees do not work without bribes. So, to control corruption, the people who engage in criminal activities should be socially boycotted. The political parties whose financial activities are not transparent should not be allowed to participate in the elections. Similarly, superstitious beliefs should be uprooted by the means of education and awareness programs.


  1. Sanitation Programs

It is necessary to conduct sanitation programs in Kathmandu oftentimes.  Sewage should not be mixed into the water resources. The advanced water treatment plant under the project ‘Rehabilitation and Expansion Waste Water Treatment Plant’ managed by Kathmandu Upatyeka Pohor Pani Byawasthapan Aayog has to be successfully accomplished. [3] Local people should also prioritize solid waste management. For this, solid wastes must be collected and transported timely and efficiently. After which it must be identified whether the waste is biodegradable or non-biodegradable so as to separately treat them. Also, waste management centers have to be established far from residential areas.


  1. Rights and Justice

People should get their rights. Justice should be provided to all. Child rights, women’s rights, etc. should be ensured. The wrong ones should be punished and the innocent ones should be compensated. So, there should be a strong police system to catch the criminals.

Lastly, I believe that we will achieve our new developed, coordinated, culturally beautiful, Kathmandu if we follow the above-mentioned process with our joint efforts.



The new kathmandu

how i envision the future city of Kathmandu “results of the efforts we give today

I envision the future Kathmandu as developed. I do not visualize Kathmandu to be a city without any problems but instead as a city with innovative minds and good infrastructure which is capable of solving any problem. I envision Kathmandu to have risen from the grief of poverty and unemployment. Here are some of the aspects in which I imagine the utmost development of Kathmandu:

  1. Design and Architecture

Our architecture is unique and appreciable. Nepalese architecture: Pagoda style, Chaitya style and Shikhar style are perfectly exhibited by the heritages in Kathmandu. There are several statues of Gods and also our national heroes erected. Likewise, there are many art colleges, colleges of fine arts established that helps the students learn more about architecture. We have also enriched a lot in constructing tall buildings, malls and apartments with the flavor of our antique culture in them. The designs and architecture displayed in Kathmandu fascinates tourists.


  1. Society, Civilization and Religion

The societies of Kathmandu are famous for their quality of ‘Unity in Diversity’. In spite of different religions and traditions, there is unity and harmony. All the variety in religion is well conserved. The civilization of people is swiftly improving. The societies of Kathmandu are renowned for their incredible utilization of means and resources. The people have easy access to clean drinking water and food. Equality is maintained in all forms. Kathmandu no longer needs to provide more reserved seats for women and people of indigenous communities because it has been fully successful to represent everyone as equal. Many people of the society are self-employed. People use their learned skills in the correct manner for the overall development of Kathmandu.


  1. Science and Technology

Technologically, as well, Kathmandu has reached new heights of success. Many people are greatly interested in science and technology. All the population of Kathmandu are well acquainted with new technologies. New technologies have been used to produce hydroelectricity. Many micro hydroelectricity projects have completely solved the problem of electricity crisis and load shedding. We have generated sufficient energy production for Nepal and its industries and so, export of electricity to foreign countries is also done. By the aid of science and technology, many farmers also engage in modern and commercialized farming.


  1. Heritage Sites and Conservation

Swayambhunath stupa, Bouddhanath stupa and Pashupatinath temple are the major tourist destinations. All the structures, small shrines here add to the beauty of these places. Not only these but also the durbar square is in exemplary condition. I envision Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park to also be enlisted in the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO because of its natural beauty and its contribution in protection of endangered flora and fauna. Our heritages reflect our art, culture, tradition, unique wildlife and identity. Realizing this fact, government, local bodies as well as common citizens preserve the heritage sites.  The people of Kathmandu are well aware about the importance of these sites and do not encroach them. Youth clubs and community groups collectively renovate the heritage sites time and often.


  1. Environment and Wildlife




The environment of Kathmandu is fresh and lively. The parks, where people do yoga early in the morning, are breezy and open. The forest areas are beautifully wooded and picturesque. Medicinal herbs of many types grow in these lush forests. Also, the wildlife is well-preserved. There are many conservation areas, wildlife reserves and national parks established throughout the city. The water resources are clean. Terrestrial and aquatic animals are well preserved because of the green and healthy environment.


  1. Policy and Planning

The policy making procedure in Kathmandu is commendable. The local level make scientific plans which are strategically planned. The people understand the necessity of the plans and follow them properly. The planning committee plan and strategize. They make their policies transparent to the citizens. This way Kathmandu has accomplished many development projects. It has done praiseworthy job in planning process.


  1. Commercialization of agriculture and establishment of industries

The farmers do not engage in agriculture just for subsistence but also for sale in the market. They focus on the use of improved seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, multiple cropping, crop diversification and use of modern agricultural equipment. Also, the government has provided the facility of soft loan to the peasants. Farmers also do cooperative farming and this has helped a lot in the economy of Kathmandu. It also provides the raw materials for agro and forest-based industries. The establishment of cottage and small industries have helped in the conservation of Nepalese art and culture, created employment and used the indigenous skills. Similarly, the medium and large industries have set the base of the economic development by developing the primary industries like iron, cement, machineries and electricity. They have also improved the national economy.


  1. Science Parks, Research, Development and Innovation

There are many science parks and museums in Kathmandu. Kids are also taken to these parks and museums as school trips. There are many national level science labs in Kathmandu. Researchers and scientists here research and discover many wonders of the whole world. Because of this, Kathmandu is advancing in a fast pace. Modern technologies have been used to develop Kathmandu. New inventions are being done. These new innovations are popular worldwide.


      9. Road Network and Smart Technology

No society in Kathmandu is isolated or disconnected because the road facility has upgraded a lot. Every part of Kathmandu is connected with road. Several highways have been constructed. And along with that there is modern technology used to deliver goods and services. Hence, we can easily transport them. The residents of Kathmandu use smart technology. They use smart fridge and other kitchen appliances, smart TV, smart watch and so on which make their life comfortable.


     10.Stadiums and Business Centers

Kathmandu has its own large stadiums. Every year many national and international games are played in these stadiums. Football, volleyball, basketball, cricket etc. are given great importance. There are also many successfully running business centers in Kathmandu conducting foreign businesses and business all over Nepal. Therefore, the commercial sector is prospering in Kathmandu.

Art Works



Art Work 1| The rich art and culture of Kathmandu, the pride of the people as a nepali, our magnificent heritages, varieties of festivals and maintenance of peace and harmony is portrayed in this art work.


Art Work 2| it represents the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity. it also shows the necessity of conserving our national parks and wildlife areas.

Art Work 2| This art work displays the misery faced by people due to covid-19 and brings the faith that with proper sanitation, unity, appropriate planning and effort of all we will fight covid-19.



Art Work 4| It depicts the pollution, deforestation and inefficient planning in the present condition of Kathmandu and how our effort can lead us to a colorful and bright future.

Art Work #5 | Essay

Wow! I feel so healthy and prosperous. I love being this way. But, I remember I was not this way all the time. Let me tell you a short story.

Just about a decade ago, my condition was terrible. My air was worse than ever. I felt sick and tired. My main attractions: rivers and ponds were all filthy, muddy, and full of garbage. No fishes ever came to my rivers. The roads were unmanaged and congested with vehicles. I felt so dirty every day. And over that, my people hated me so much. It broke my self-esteem. I was unable to show my face to my visitors. Tourists would pity my condition. But nothing of what I had experienced made me feel so bad. The one that felt the worst was when my youths, whom I depend on, left my hands and went to foreign cities. It broke my heart. I questioned them, “How can you leave me in this miserable situation? I am your motherland, the place where you were born and nourished. Do you have no respect for me?” I wondered day and night but no one listened to me.

Then one day, I noticed many of my dear people crying for food. I could not see their misery. My children were dying for something as simple as food and yet I could do nothing. I was helpless. My eyes flooded with tears seeing their grief. And on the other side, I could see my people blaming me that I was impure and lacked resources. Then, something stroked to me. I thought this is not me. I used to have the perfect climate one can desire. What happened to me now? I did not do anything wrong. And that day, as I took complete note of the daily activities of humans, I saw my people throwing their garbage haphazardly on my paths and rivers. I saw industries, which my people built, were badly troubling my air. I saw my men flying abroad without looking back at my condition. I saw some of my people were asking for more money than required to build and renovate my roads and my historical buildings. Later I got to know people call this act: Corruption. All-day long, I observed this silently. The daylight swept away, everyone slept, but I pulled an all-nighter that night and thought and overthought about the fact that my people betrayed me every single day.

Early in the morning, when all of my people started their day and went for their work, they again started to point out my imperfections. But I remained calm and believed on my people. I knew that one day they will realize their mistakes and my health will recover. I waited patiently and slowly, my positive thoughts and hopes were starting to come true. Gradually, people started to value my air and climate. They started planting more trees and managing waste properly. They cleaned my rivers and protected the biodiversity. My rivers became healthier than ever so fishes and many other aquatic animals came to them. After their hard work for years, I recouped my illness. From being at the verge of pollution and over population to regaining my previous glory has been a long journey. I am so proud of my people for their persistence. Today I stand tall and bright. I have become the best tourist destination. All credit goes to my people as they are caring, honest and ingenious. All of them are literate and they discover many wonders of the world as well.

So, yes this is my story but it isn’t the end because I am full of possibilities and resources. I hope my people utilize the resources without destroying them. I hope I get better with every passing day. I am sure that this is possible because I have complete faith in my people.



Results and Observations





From the lack of good administration to the lack of technological advancements, Kathmandu is yet to make several changes to improve its condition. But, I believe that with our collective efforts, we will get to see the new Kathmandu that values its people, culture, and environment and is still modernizing. However, we must keep in mind that this is only possible by our conscious and constant struggle. It might be a very tiring journey to achieve the improved Kathmandu. So, let’s remember to enjoy the process. Let’s be hopeful towards a brighter future and fight every challenge that comes past our journey with bravery, gallantry, and intelligence.

Thank you!




[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathmandu

[2] https://kathmandupost.com/national/2021/04/25/amid-fears-of-oxygen-shortage-government-talks-to-suppliers

[3] https://english.onlinekhabar.com/advanced-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-bagmati-gives-new-hopes-to-kathmandu.html

All the designs and paintings used in the report are my own creations.


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